CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: CH
CH-102 Generation and Distribution of Liquefied Natural Gas (Pt#1)
Part #1 of this seminar will provide an overview of the LNG Industry, providing historical context on the discovery and use of natural gas. Topics included in Part #1 include: Natural Gas Resource Development (supply, resources, pipelines), LNG Industry Development (early years; the Qatari period; the Australian period; the post 2020 US period; future developments). It will also describe the essential physical requirements, and concept planning required (markets; balance of facilities; gas reserves; transportation in and out; need for markets; trading). Current global natural gas supply and demand and the LNG sub-market will be highlighted. A brief discussion of the Upstream project development will conclude Part #1.
CH-103 Generation and Distribution of Liquefied Natural Gas (Pt#2)
This seminar will focus on the LGN value chain, emphasizing its integrated nature and discussing the interrelationships of its various parts such as upstream gas resource development (gathering and processing), the liquefaction, the transportation (receipt, storage, and re-gasification), and re-delivery into the national transportation system. Concepts to be developed include: permitting requirements under U.S. Laws, the physical and safety characteristics of LNG and the facilities used to handle it, the economics of LNG, and the U.S. National and world supply/demand for LNG.
CH-104 Molds - Causes, Prevention and Remediation
This seminar is directed primarily toward engineers involved in the prevention and remediation of molds. The exposure to molds that cause a variety of negative health effects will be discussed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the recent technology remediation options. The economic and sociopolitical issues involved with each are also included.
CH-106 Renewable Hydrogen Systems (Part #1)
This seminar will examine the different types of renewable energy systems that are available using present technologies. It will include a review of the world’s fossil fuel consumption and its environmental effects. There will be a presentation of the properties of hydrogen and a comparison between hydrogen and other energy options. Practical ways to build sustainable hydrogen energy systems will also be discussed.
CH-108 Contemporary Arguments on Nuclear Power (Pt. #1)
Global warming concerns versus the need for more power to accommodate the requirements of a growing worldwide population have resulted in a debate to identify technologies that can meet the demand while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy has the potential to address the need but it has problems of its own that makes it less than ideal. This lecture will present the technical and political arguments for and against expanding nuclear fission-based energy production.
CH-109 Hazardous Waste Management
This seminar introduces the attendees to the structure of the regulations governing hazardous waste management. It begins with a detailed analysis of the definitions of solid waste and hazardous waste, including how to perform hazardous waste determinations. Specific emphasis is placed on the development of operating procedures and self-auditing considerations for the proper management of hazardous wastes. The toxicological impact from exposure to many different chemicals is discussed. The seminar concludes with a review of the OSHA regulations applicable to emergency responses and emergency responders.
CH-112 Alternative Fuels for Electrical Power Generation
Global warming concerns versus the need for more power to accommodate the requirements of a growing worldwide population have resulted in debates to identify technologies that can meet the demand while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gases. Coal, the most commonly used source of energy to generate base-load electrical power, is a primary source of the greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Research is underway to gasify and liquefy coal in an effort to reduce its harmful emissions when used for power generation and to create an alternate source of diesel fuel. Nuclear energy has the potential to supply a major portion of the world’s energy requirements but it has problems of its own that makes it less than ideal. Bio-fuel, i.e. ethanol from corn, is being touted as the means to significantly reduce our dependence on foreign oil as well as using methane from landfill areas. However, the farmland required to grow the feedstock reduces the amount of land required to grow important food crops, i.e. soybeans, etc. used by both man and animal. The basics of these technologies, their economics, and the political arguments for and against each of these technologies will be presented and contrasted.
CH-113 Mass Transport Phenomena
This seminar covers the fundamentals, both steady and transient, of the transport of material within process equipment and in the environment. Unit operations such as distillation, extraction, filtration and adsorption are covered. Additionally, the environmental aspects of the transport of chemicals between air, water, soil, and biota are introduced along with examples and case studies. The seminar is divided into three subject areas: the theory of mass transfer, transport processes related to engineered equipment (unit operations), and transport in the natural environment.
CH-114 Engineering Challenges Associated with Climate Change (Pt. 1) CH-114 will focus the scientific evidence that has been accumulated and the modeling efforts that project what will happen.
• Is our planet undergoing “Global Warming”? Is the rate of climate change increasing? Is human activity to blame? These are questions many people around the world are asking in light of warmer winters, hotter summers, and severe storms, draught, expanding deserts and melting polar ice caps. However we may not be able to answer these questions with high degree of certainty because climate changes, unlike weather patterns, occur over periods of thousands of years and not within the time span of a few generations.
• We must acknowledge that climate change is the norm and not the exception when viewed from astronomical timelines. Earth’s climate has cycled from warm to cold to warm several times and will, in all likelihood, continue this pattern.
CH-115 Renewable Hydrogen Systems (Part #2)
This seminar will focus on the specific engineering details that are require for designing and building a practical alkaline based electrolysis system. Detailed information will be derived from real world experience of a renewable powered electrolyser that produces fuel cell grade hydrogen at 2000 PSI. Topics include voltage requirements, cell efficiencies, temperature, and pressure considerations, monitoring requirements.
CH-116 Disinfection of Water and Wastewater
This seminar will include a review of chemistry and fundamentals of chlorine, ultraviolet and ozone. The chemistry of chlorination, bacterial kill dynamics, assays, de-chlorination and formation of disinfection by- products (DBP’s) will also be discussed. The inactivation of microorganisms using ultraviolet irradiation, UV dosimetry and bioassay methods, photo-recovery, and field-testing will be investigated. The presentation will conclude with a review of ozone and other methods noted as water and wastewater disinfectants.
CH-117 Asbestos Investigations as per EPA Protocols
This seminar will address various aspects of asbestos remediation parameters and treatment protocols. It will also discuss the medical hazards of concerning asbestos, the U.S. Law passed in 1976, and the causes of Asbestosis and Mesothelioma. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods of asbestos remediation will be addressed as well as the labor requirements for asbestos workers as per the NYS Department of Labor. Decontamination procedures will be discussed including waste handling procedures and waste disposal requirements. The course will conclude with discussions on asbestos legalities, liabilities and possible future usage of asbestos.
CH-118 Lead Remediation & Future Applications
This seminar will discuss the history, laws and remediation, and the possible future use of lead. There will be a review of lead applications from ancient times to the present. Then there will be discussions of the chemical characteristics of lead that will entail its positive and negative attributes. Remediation will be review of the procedures used to remove lead from walls and metals and the biological treatment for human ingestion. The lecture will conclude with the standards and procedures that must be used for lead applications as outlined in existing codes such as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( NAAQS) and the Water pollution control Act of 1981.
CH-119 Fundamentals, Technologies, & Safeguards of Nuclear Energy (Part #1)
There are 436 nuclear power plants worldwide generating approximately one sixth of the electrical power consumed. Approximately one quarter of all the nuclear power plants is located in the United States with one quarter of all US plants located in the Northeast. The existing plants are aging and will require renovation.
The rates of fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission rise every year, seriously affecting the Earth’s climate. The current difficulties with fossil fuel supply and its rising price along with nuclear powers half century of commercial operation have engendered renewed interest in nuclear power as a potential source of clean energy.
CH-120 Fundamentals, Technologies, & Safeguards of Nuclear Energy (Part #2)
With any industrial construction or renovation, a large portion of the design effort is accomplished by professionals familiar with the industry but not expert in the design of the process equipment.
The intention and objectives of this course is to familiarize the professionals with fundamentals, radiation, technologies, infrastructure, safety issues, advantages and disadvantages and the safeguard of the industry.
CH-121 Reservoir Management (Limnology)
This seminar will be a review of the principles of limnology, including the formation and categories of lakes and reservoirs. Physical stratification and chemical, physical and biological characteristics and behavior of lake water and the associated lake sediments will be discussed. A survey of water quality parameters, quality changes, common problems, causes and short and long term control methods will be investigated as well as considerations of impact assessment approaches related to proposed activities.
CH-122 Bio-Solids Waste Management
This seminar will be a review of the source and makeup of bio-solids, their physical, chemical and biological nature. Also discussed will be the handling and disposal considerations. The treatment and handling of bio-solids to will include anaerobic digestion and composting of bio-solids and how it is combined with other organic substrates such as leaves, grass residues, food residues and refuse.
CH-123 Synthetic Fuels: Fisher-Tropsch Conversion Process (Part #1)
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) is the key step in the manufacture of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from a variety of carbon based sources, including gas, coal, shale, biomass, and waste. The purpose of FTS is to produce a synthetic oil substitute, for use as lubricants or synthetic automotive, truck and aircraft fuel. FTS involves a catalyzed chemical reaction in which synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) is converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. Synthesis gas is easily manufactured via steam reforming of hydrocarbons or (more likely) partial oxidation or POX. The combination of POX (gasification) and FTS is considered to be a key technology in the quest for the United States energy independence. In this seminar, a snapshot of the current energy utilization picture in the United states will be presented as well as the opportunity for FTS. The chemistry and processing of the FTS process will be reviewed.
CH-124 Synthetic Fuels: Fisher-Tropsch Conversion Process (Part # 2)
The original Fischer Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) process was invented by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch in the 1920s with the sole purpose of producing liquid fuels. The political goal was to provide energy independence for Germany which was rich in coal but had little petroleum. Nowadays, the FTS process is established technology and has been applied on a large scale in some countries. However, the popularity of the FTS is limited due to the low hydrogen content of some of the incoming fuels. This results in the need to reject carbon dioxide from the process, thus reducing yield and causing environmental concerns. Additionally, the low yield restricts the economic viability of FTS to situations in which alternatives for liquid fuels, such as petroleum are very costly. In this seminar the production and import of hydrogen gas into the FTS process will be presented. The required processing for the manufacture of low cost hydrogen will be discussed and the process integration with FTS process will be presented.
CH 125 The Engineering and Economics of Bio-Fuel
The production need to free the US from our dependence on foreign oil has motivated the rapid development of the bio-fuels industry. Further, the use of bio fuels has been proposed as a substitute for fossil fuels as a way to combat global warming. Finally, bio fuels derived from vegetation are considered a renewable resource.
Photosynthesis, a complex biological enzymatic process, traps solar energy into the carbon-carbon bonds of organic carbohydrate polymers, and fat molecules. The bio fuel industry has developed chemical and biochemical processes to create smaller organic molecules, both liquid and gaseous, from these plant polymers suitable as fuels for automobiles, trucks, etc. The two most common liquid molecules are ethanol and bio-diesel; the most common gaseous molecule is methane.
In this presentation, we will introduce the biochemical processes that form the organic polymers; describe the prominent productions schemes used to create bio-fuels, and evaluate the energy balance of the processes. We will examine the arguments for an against bio-fuel production e.g. "water and plant consumption for fuel" versus "food"; and consider the economics and effects of bio-fuel production on our climate.
CH-126 Biological and Chemical Evaluation of Water Quality
Review of the fundamentals of water chemistry and the basic physical and chemical relationships and water quality parameters. Review of changes associated with microbiological components and dynamic relationships as applied to natural receiving water systems as well as in water and wastewater. Ecological relationships and transformations, review of relevant water quality parameters in diagnosing water quality problems
CH-127 Environmental Impact Evaluation of Water Quality
Review of planning and conduct of environmental assessments dealing with water quality projects, sampling programs, evaluation of impacts from a variety of proposed projects, review of methods of judging impact, mitigation measures and strategies for managing such evaluations and presentations.
CH-128 Contemporary Analysis & Strategies for Fusion Based Power Generation (Part. #1)
Base-load electrical power generation using nuclear fusion has the potential to supply the world’s energy needs without creating green house gasses. The fusion process utilizes
abundant hydrogen and is the strategy used by the Sun to power our solar system. This lecture will introduce nuclear fusion physics and the competing engineering technologies, i.e.
magnetic confinement and inertial confinement, being developed as commercially viable approaches for converting fusion energy into electrical energy. The status of each technology, its potential and problems will be covered. In addition, recent developments combining fusion with fission for transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, and cold fusion will be presented.
This lecture will consider the radioactive waste implications of current Fusion reactor designs and present recent design alternatives. The presentation will include economic implications of moving to a fusion based base-load energy generation system and the technical and political controversies surrounding a national investment in Fusion strategies versus "green" alternatives.
CH-129 Co-Generation Fundamentals for Electrical & Thermal Power (Pt. 1)
Combined Heat & Power (CHP) has been in use for many years. With current high energy costs and new interest in the CHP processes, care must be taken with the analysis and considerations of integrating a CHP system with an existing facility. This seminar section will review industry definitions, prime movers, data gathering and financial modeling used to qualify a facility.
CH-130 Co-Generation Fundamentals for Electrical & Thermal Power (Pt. 2)
After qualifying a facility for a CHP application this seminar section will review project cost estimation, incentive opportunities, financing options, system design and code considerations, permitting, startup & commissioning, utility electrical testing, operations & maintenance, measurement & verification and staff training.
CH-131 Contemporary Analysis and Strategies for Fusion Based Power Generation ((Part #2)
This lecture will consider the radioactive waste implications of current Fusion reactor designs and present recent design alternatives. The presentation will include economic implications of moving to a fusion based base-load energy generation system and the technical and political controversies surrounding a national investment in Fusion strategies versus "green" alternatives.
CH-132 Corrosion Failures in Structures and Prevention Techniques
This seminar will discuss various types of corrosion mechanisms and failures that can result in significant structural damage. Prevention techniques will be discussed including the proper selection of alloys, materials, coatings and as well as galvanically compatible materials. Actual examples will be discussed. Class participants will be encouraged to bring up additional examples that are work related for further class discussions. This course will also give the student an appreciation for many of the environmental factors that initiate corrosion mechanisms.
CH-133 Corrosion Mitigation by Cathodic Protection
This seminar will explain how materials and structures can be protected from corrosion by cathodic protection by both passively and by impressed current. Examples will be explained for buried pipe lines and the factors that go into a good design of a corrosion protection system. The various impressed current systems will be shown plus calculations of current needs. Select examples that will discussed to give the attendee an appreciation of how to initiate the design such a system.
CH-134 Contemporary Arguments on Nuclear Power (Pt. #2)
As of May 2011, 12 incidents involving nuclear fission reactors have been reported, four in the United States, three in Japan, two in France, and one each in Scotland, East Germany and Ukraine. These incidents have resulted in the release of varying amounts of radioactivity into the atmosphere and surrounding areas from damage to the reactor cores. The most recent incident occurred at the Daiichi plant in Fukushima, Japan as a result of a magnitude 9.0 Richter scale earthquake and the associated tsunami. This incident has renewed concern about nuclear fission reactor facilities as safe base-load electrical energy generation stations. This presentation will review the 12 incidents in chronological order covering their probable causes, remediation, radiation released and health effects. The lecture will include the scale used to rate the “seriousness” of nuclear incidents and how these incidents have influenced safety practices at current and future nuclear reactor facilities.
CH-135 Hydraulic Fracking; Technology, Economic, Health and Safety Issues (Part #1)
Fracking is the colloquial name for the process of hydraulic fracturing to recover deeply held natural gas and oil. In fracking a high pressure fluid with suspended solid particles, known as proppants is injected into deep well-holes. Cracks are created in sedimentary rock and the proppant (usually sand) holds open the crack, releasing trapped oil and gas. Geological assessments indicate that there are enormous quantities of gas available for recovery via fracking in the eastern United States in the Marcellus Shale formation. In part 1 of this two part seminar a snapshot of the current natural gas mining procedures will be presented.
CH-136 Hydraulic Fracking; Technology, Economic, Health and Safety Issues (Part #2)
Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) concerns have developed over the process of fracking, with some of the biggest issues being the uncontrolled release of natural gas as well as the contamination of drinking water with natural and synthetic toxins including reportedly radioactive material. In this two part seminar, current and historic mining processes will be presented along with utilization and transportation options. In part 2 of this two part seminar the economic incentive as well as the key societal issues on both sides of the debate over fracking will be discussed.
CH-137 Environmental Remediation Awareness for Building Design Professionals
This four hour lecture will briefly touch on common environmental issues and regulations that could come up during the operation of existing buildings or the design of new buildings. The course will include a brief discussion of the major sources of environmental pollutants (air pollution, water pollution and hazardous or chemical waste management). We will then discuss federal and local regulations that have been put in place to control these sources and how they could pertain to buildings. The origins of regulations and how they flow from the federal to local level will also be discussed. Common environmental issues that should be addressed during design such as Wetland permits, dealing with “Universal Waste”, Storm water Drainage, air emissions… will be addresses. The instructor will use environmental investigations and/or building designs that he has been involved in as case studies during the course.
CH-138 Hazardous Material and Confined Space Awareness for Building Design
The first half of this seminar will provide guidance on the proper management of potentially hazardous chemicals in buildings and structures. We will be discussing various chemical hazards, the forms these hazards are in and their routes of entry into the body. Regulations and building codes relating to the storage, use and disposal of used chemicals will also be reviewed. The instructor has had extensive experience in addressing work place chemical management programs and will discuss the same during the seminar. After reviewing hazardous chemicals we will discuss the management and recognition of “confined spaces” in buildings and structures. Topics include local and federal regulations, compliance with building codes, and definitions used in the industry. During the course we will go over the health and safety hazards associated with such spaces. We will review processes used to classify confined spaces and how to manage an entry permit procedure for such spaces. The instructors experience in dealing with confined spaces while working for the United States Navy on nuclear submarine repairs will be used as case histories during the course.
CH-139 OSHA Regulations for Hazmat, Demolition and Construction (Part # 1)
Part one of this seminar will focus on Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) regulations for hazardous materials and demolition. The seminar will focus on the various training regulations relating to hazardous materials handling and response, the types of hazardous materials and the various hazards and risks associated with them, the routes of entry for hazardous materials to enter the body. The student will learn about the need for personal protective equipment when using hazardous materials, the need for respiratory equipment and of the advantages and disadvantages to the types of respiratory equipment and the health effects that hazardous materials can have on the body.
CH-140 OSHA Regulations for Hazmat, Demolition and Construction (Part # 2)
Part two of this seminar will continue with Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) regulations for hazardous materials, demolition and construction. The topics will include OSHA lead in construction, fall protection, use of equipment, excavation safety and accident prevention related to demolition and construction. The student will also learn about heavy construction equipment OSHA safety standards, work practices and site safety as applicable to demolition and construction projects.
CH-141 Engineering Challenges Associated with Climate Change (Pt. 2)
CH141 will focus on what, if anything, we can or should do to improve our chances for survival. We will introduce concepts of adaption to help our world cope with current climate effects while simultaneously developing strategies to mitigate the perceived factors that are accelerating climate change.
• The important concerns we face today are how do we anticipate and then accommodate the expanding world population’s need for food, shelter, health needs, and energy requirements in the face of the climatic turmoil we are experiencing.
• Humans are the current dominate inhabitants of earth but unlike other dominate species that became extinct from climate change humans possess the intellectual capacity and engineering capability to cope with the current climatic challenges and perhaps influence the outcome and the survival of our species.
CH-142 Shale Gas Conversion Part I: Methane Processing & Economics
With the discovery of vast quantities of natural gas available in various shale formations in Pennsylvania, New York and several adjoining states comes the opportunity to convert this gas, traditionally used for fuel, into more value added products. The methane portion can be processed into intermediates such as ethylene via oxidative coupling or converted into Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for shipping. In this seminar the processing requirements and performance of a variety of technologies starting with methane will be presented.
CH-143 Shale Gas Conversion Part II: NGL Processing & Economics
With the discovery of vast quantities of natural gas available in various shale formations in Pennsylvania, New York and several adjoining states comes the opportunity to convert this gas, traditionally used for fuel, into more value added products. Substantial quantities of ethane and propane (E/P mixes) are associated with the methane in shale gas. This ethane/propane fraction, traditionally know as Natural Gas Liquids or NGLs can be converted into ethylene via conventional steam pyrolysis or oxidative dehydrogenation. In this seminar the processing requirements of a variety of technologies starting with E/P mixes will be presented.
CH-144 Alternative Fuels for Electrical Power Generation (Pt.2)
Global Warming / Climate Change - concerns versus the need for more electrical power to accommodate the requirements of a growing worldwide population have necessitated the development of alternative power generating technologies to meet the demand while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions. Combustion of coal, the most commonly used world-wide source of energy to generate base-load electrical power, is also the primary source of GHG gases that contribute to the anthropogenic sources of global warming. Research is underway to develop alternative fuel technologies for production of electricity and transportation. We will investigate the basics of liquid and gaseous fuels that hold the potential for electrical power generation as an alternative to combustion of coal, oil, mined natural gas and alternative modes of extracting energy from them.
CH-145 The Influence of Air & Water Pollution on Climate Change (Pt.1)
Is our planet undergoing “Global Warming”? Is the rate of climate change increasing? Is human activity to blame? These are questions many people around the world are asking in light of warmer winters, hotter summers, and severe storms, draught, expanding deserts and melting polar ice caps. However we may not be able to answer these questions with high degree of certainty because climate changes, unlike weather patterns, occur over periods of thousands of years and not within the time span of a few generations.
We must acknowledge that climate change is the norm and not the exception when viewed from astronomical timelines. Earth’s climate has cycled from warm to cold to warm several times and will, in all likelihood, continue this pattern. This lecture will present the latest scientific evidence that has been accumulated and the mathematical modeling efforts used to predict climate change in the future from various scenarios. The information used in the presentation comes from the most rent IPCC AR5 report published in Oct. 2014; scientific studies published in peer-reviewed high impact factor journals, e.g. Nature, Science; and commentary from newspapers, e.g. NY Times. Every effort is made to present an unbiased and balanced presentation of the scientific/engineering facts published on the complex subject or climate change..
CH-146 The Influence of Air & Water Pollution on Climate Change (Pt.2)
Water and air pollution affect the rate of and are affected by climate change. “Pollutants” are released into the earth’s atmospheric and oceanic systems and influence the systems’ chemical constituents & physical processes as well as with the biological organisms that inhabit those systems. Part 1 of this two-part lecture series introduced and summarized the observations associated with pollutants that are suspected to influence climate change.
This lecture will present the latest scientific findings from investigations to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of how pollutant iterations with atmospheric and oceanic systems directly influence climate. This course will introduce the student to the underlying geo-chemical and geo-physical phenomena associated with pollutant interactions with atmospheric and oceanic chemical constituents. Simple mathematical models of earth’s climate dynamics will be introduced to help understand the influence and location of pollution emissions on the distribution of pollutants between land, air and water spaces and the effects they have on global thermodynamics. The mathematical modeling material will include web–based simulation software used to study climate parameters as a function of pollutant concentration. The lecture materials are taken from scientific studies published in peer-reviewed high impact factor journals, e.g. Nature, Science; published textbooks on the subject and web resources.
CH-147 Chemical Reactor Design (Pt. 1)
In reaction engineering the conversion of certain molecules into different molecules (chemical systems) or the conversion of molecules into energy (nuclear systems) are studied. The key unit operation in reaction is the reactor which must be designed to process the chemicals as well as manage the heat effects. In the first part of the two part seminar, the basics of the chemistry surrounding the chemical or nuclear change are presented along with the associated heat effects. The concept of stoichiometry which is the instructions for the reactor are presented. The difference between types of reactors and the choices involved in the processing of the stoichiometry are also presented.
CH-148 Chemical Reactor Design (Pt. 2)
In the second part of the two part seminar, the details of the different types of reactors are described and examples of the corresponding design and operation are presented. The fundamental mass transfer equation will be used to describe the reactor and inform the design. Reactors presented will involve nuclear and chemical change from a variety of industries and government agencies, including NASA. In industry chemical reactors often account for 25-50% of the total capital cost of the plant and the energy cost or energy recovery are usually a significant portion of the cost of production. A roadmap for the selection of an appropriate reactor will be presented.
CH-149 The Engineering of Genetically Modified Foods & Water Purification #1
Climate change, the increase of global population and the reduction of available land and potable fresh water supplies are causing a re-thinking of contemporary techniques used for the production and distribution of mankind’s plant and animal food staples. The concern is that these techniques will be unable to feed the world’s population in the 21st century. Until recently, plant and animal “Mendelian” husbandry techniques were applied to develop more robust staple organisms that make up our diet. With advances in genetic engineering these organisms can now be modified in ways that are not possible with traditional techniques. Specifically we now have the ability to incorporate genes into organisms from other species to create chimeras that grow faster; are more resistant to diseases and insect pests; tolerate herbicides; and are able to grow in brackish water. These new species are referred to as “genetically modified organisms” or GMOs. These GMOs require new production techniques to bring them to market and prevent their interacting with native species. This lecture will introduce the climate and population factors that are causing concern and consider the world’s projected food requirements. Then we will examine the contemporary agricultural, hydroponic, aquaculture and animal engineering techniques used to grow our food, and introduce the concepts of genetic engineering techniques, i.e. CRISPR, used to create new chimeric organisms and their special requirements. We will next introduce the recent unanticipated problems discovered with the safety of GMO consumption and conclude with the ethical considerations associated with GMO versus current staple plant and animals in the context of feeding the world.
CH-150 The Engineering of Genetically Modified Foods & Water Purification #2
Climate change, the increase of global population, the reduction of available land and potable fresh water supplies is causing a re-thinking of techniques for the production and distribution of the plant and animal food staples to provide adequate and sustainable quantities for the 21st century. Until recently, fresh water was in plentiful supplies with local lakes, rivers and reservoirs fed from underground aquifers; mountain’s glacier run-off and snow melt and plentiful rains. However irresponsible water usage practices; competition for water sources by hydraulic fracturing processes; an increase in severe droughts and changing weather patterns has resulted in a serious loss of fresh potable water. This presentation will examine the world population needs, usage practice and the present day challenges to our water supply, and introduce the technologies being developed and incorporated to provide potable water for the 21st century.
CH-151 Carbon Nano-tube Filtration Techniques for Potable Water (Pt.1)
Scientists agree that clean water is vital to sustain life. With the pressures of the modern world and increasing population, many people (closing in on 2 billion) are without a available source of clean water. Technology to make water of a satisfactory purity as well as in adequate supply and available at a given location are the key components of potable water. Improving access to safe drinking-water can result in a reduction in water borne illnesses and improved health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), very effort should be made to achieve a drinking-water quality as safe as practicable. Drinking water that is safe does not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages. In the first part of the seminar, the problem will be scoped and options for remediation will be presented.
CH-152 Carbon Nano-tube Filtration Techniques for Potable Water (Pt.2)
In Part 2 a brief scoping review of the world-wide situation regarding clean water is presented. The situation of those at greatest risk of waterborne disease is discussed along with the technology to produce safe drinking-water for all usual domestic purposes, including personal hygiene. The WHO has published guidelines for potable water which are also applicable to packaged water and ice intended for human consumption. However, the WHO states that their guidelines may not be suitable for the protection of aquatic life or for some industries. A detailed analytical review of technology to provide potable water in multiple societal and industrial contexts is discussed as well as the technology required for water of higher quality for some special purposes. Those who are severely immunocompromised may need to take additional steps, due to their susceptibility to organisms that would not normally be of concern through drinking-water. The seminar will conclude with a projection about future water supplies and quality including a discussion of the “limits to growth”.
CH-153 Advanced Processing of Natural Gas for the Petrochemical Industry #1
The world-wide petrochemical industry has greater than $1 trillion yearly market value of products ranging from intermediates to finished products. These appear throughout our everyday existence. About 25% of the petrochemicals are supplied by the US, which is the dominant world-wide producer. Petrochemicals are produced by steam pyrolysis, an energy and capital intensive process. Typical grass root plant costs are about $4 billion for a world scale plant and these facilities contribute greatly to the carbon footprint. Nearly 5 quads of energy are consumed by this industry every year. In part 1 of the seminar, the industry will be described and the leveraging parts of the technology identified. Key areas for technology improvement will be discussed.
CH-154 Advanced Processing of Natural Gas for the Petrochemical Industry #2
This seminar is a continuation of the previous effort in which the industry was laid out in detail and the weak points identified. With the abundance of low cost natural gas, the US dominance in petrochemical processing is even more secure. One of the by-products of the natural gas boom is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), composed of ethane and propane, both of which are key feedstocks for petrochemicals. Advanced processing is on the verge of being implemented in these facilities, which includes novel reactors, membranes and adsorption separation. All of these will contribute to lowering the capital cost, reducing the carbon footprint and enabling the US to maintain a dominant position world-wide. Technology and economic performance will be described.
CH-155 On-Site Food Waste Digestive & Liquefier Mechanisms
As food waste becomes more of an issue in the management of municipal solid waste, states and municipalities have begun to prohibit the landfill disposal of food and other organic waste. This has caused generators and disposal operators to re-think the disposal options pertaining to food waste. In urban areas, collecting organic waste is costly and typically adds another level of street congestion by necessitating a separate type of collection vehicle. Large scale composting is not viable in an urban environment. On-site food waste reduction mechanisms have been introduced in commercial operations. These units can operate economically and can effectively reduce or digest the food waste feed-stock in volume and weight of the end product -- and the putrescible fraction. This seminar will (i) review regulations which divert food waste from landfills, and (ii) analyze the technology and science behind an aqueous-based operating environment as well as a dehydrator operating environment. Lastly, there are beneficial re-uses of the end products with both the liquefier and dehydrator mechanisms.
CH-156 Nitrate Removal Technology for Well Water Systems
The EPA and permitting authorities regulate nitrate (NO3) discharges. Nitrates can be found in surface and ground water as a result of human and animal wastes and the use of fertilizers. High nitrate concentrations in drinking water present acute and long-term harm to humans, aquatic life and the environment. Nitrates can cause methemoglobinemia in infants, a condition also known as "blue baby" syndrome.
Nitrates are a form of nitrogen, which is found in several different forms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These forms of nitrogen include ammonia (NH3), nitrates (NO3), and nitrites (NO2). Nitrates are essential plant nutrients, but in excess amounts they can cause significant water quality problems. Together with phosphorus, nitrates in excess amounts can accelerate eutrophication, causing dramatic increases in aquatic plant growth and changes in the types of plants and animals that live in the stream. This, in turn, affects dissolved oxygen, temperature, and other indicators. Excess nitrates can cause hypoxia (low levels of dissolved oxygen) and can become toxic to warm-blooded animals at higher concentrations (10 mg/L) or higher) under certain conditions. The natural level of ammonia or nitrate in surface water is typically low (less than 1 mg/L); in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants, it can range up to 30 mg/L.
Sources of nitrates include wastewater treatment plants, runoff from fertilized lawns and cropland, failing on-site septic systems, runoff from animal manure storage areas, and industrial discharges that contain corrosion inhibitors.
There are a number of nitrate removal technologies. This course will review traditional methods of nitrate removal and introduce an electrolytic removal technology which does not require the use of additives (i.e. salts) and does not produce a toxic by-product. Unlike reverse osmosis or ion exchange methods of nitrate removal, the electrolytic removal technology is low-cost and, in fact, produces an end-product with beneficial re-use potential.
CH-157 Engineering Challenges Associated with Climate Change (# 3)
CH-158 Engineering Challenges Associated with Climate Change (# 4)
CH-159 Modular Nuclear Reactors for Reducing Variable Costs in Industry
In plants and factories, the cost of production of material and energy equals the sum of variable cost, fixed cost and capital recovery. The same is true of nuclear generated power. Nuclear power is cost competitive with other forms of electricity generation, except where there is direct access to low-cost and low-quality fossil fuels. Fuel costs for nuclear plants are a minor proportion of total generating costs, though capital costs are greater than those for coal-fired plants and much greater than those for gas-fired plants. System costs for nuclear power (as well as coal and gas-fired generation) are very much lower than for intermittent renewables. In assessing the economics of nuclear power, decommissioning and waste disposal costs must be fully taken into account. Nuclear power plant construction is typical of large infrastructure projects around the world, with significant costs and delivery challenges. Assessing the relative costs of new generating plants utilizing different technologies is a complex matter and the results depend crucially on location. Coal is, and will remain, economically attractive in countries such as China, the USA and Australia, as long as carbon emissions are cost-free. Gas is also competitive for base-load power in many places, particularly using combined-cycle plants.
Nuclear power plants are expensive to build but relatively cheap to run. In many places, nuclear energy is competitive with fossil fuels as a means of electricity generation. Waste disposal and decommissioning costs are usually fully included in the operating costs. If the social, health and environmental costs of fossil fuels are also taken into account, the competitiveness of nuclear power is improved. The basic metric for any generating plant is the cost of electricity (levelized cost of electricity, LCOE). It is the total cost to build and operate a power plant over its lifetime divided by the total electricity output dispatched from the plant over that period, hence typically cost per megawatt hour. It takes into account the financing costs of the capital component.
CH-160 Micro Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear reactors are getting smaller, thereby providing some big opportunities for the industry. A handful of micro-reactor designs are under development in the United States, and they could be ready to be commissioned within the next decade or so. These compact reactors will be small enough to transport by truck and could help solve energy challenges in a number of areas, ranging from remote commercial or residential locations to military bases.
Nuclear power offers many benefits for the environment as well. Power plants don’t burn any materials so they produce no combustion by-products. Additionally, because they don’t produce greenhouse gases, nuclear plants help protect air quality and mitigate climate change. However, since cycle efficiencies are about the same as power from other sources of fuel, there will be an equivalent amount of energy rejected to the atmosphere. Nuclear power plants can continuously generate electricity for many months at a time, without interruption, predicted at the scale required for a refinery or petrochemical plant. For decades, GE and Hitachi have been at the forefront of nuclear technology, setting the industry benchmark for reactor design and construction. The Idaho National Laboratory (DOE-INL) as part of their net-zero research is matching micro-reactors with demands of refineries and petrochemical plants.